what did augusto pinochet do
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[C], Pinochet's reputation led Peruvians in the 1990s to call Alberto Fujimori "chinochet" instead of his ordinary nickname "chino".  Pinochet argued that due to advances in medicine, abortion was "no longer justifiable. , In 2007, fifteen years of investigation led to the conclusion that the 1992 assassination of DINA Colonel Gerardo Huber was most probably related to various illegal arms traffic carried out, after Pinochet's resignation from power, by military circles very close to himself. In October 1998 he became the centre of international attention when he was arrested in London, following a request from Spain for his extradition to stand trial for ‘crimes of genocide and terrorism’, in which some of the victims had been Spanish nationals. Financial conglomerates became major beneficiaries of the liberalized economy and the flood of foreign bank loans. British priest Michael Woodward, who vanished within 10 days of the coup, was tortured and beaten to death aboard the Chilean naval ship, Esmeralda.. Gen. Augusto Pinochet General Pinochet (pronounced pee-noh-CHET) soon made it clear that he had little use for political parties, banning all of them.  , In the months that followed the coup, the junta, with authoring work by historian Gonzalo Vial and admiral Patricio Carvajal, published a book titled El Libro Blanco del cambio de gobierno en Chile (commonly known as El Libro Blanco, 'The White Book on the Change of Government in Chile'), in which they said that they were in fact anticipating a self-coup (the alleged Plan Zeta, or Plan Z) that Allende's government or its associates were purportedly preparing. Amnesty International had done a lot of work denouncing the atrocities carried out by Pinochet's regime, which was responsible for the disappearance of more than 3,000 people and the torture of thousands more in a 17-year reign. At the beginning of 1953, with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica.  In Geopolítica Pinochet plagiarized his mentor general Gregorio Rodríguez Tascón by using paragraphs from a 1949 conference presentation of Rodríguez without attributing them to him. Pinochet's funeral took place the following day at the same venue before a gathering of 60,000 supporters.. A plebiscite held in 1988 rejected his candidacy as president beyond 1990, but he retained his post as commander-in-chief of the army until 1998.  Pinochet was also trained by the School of the Americas (SOA) where it is likely he first encountered the ideals of the coup. His first act when landing in Santiago's airport was to triumphantly get up from his wheelchair to the acclaim of his supporters.  Pinochet's policies eventually led to substantial GDP growth, in contrast to the negative growth seen in the early years of his administration, while public debt also was kept high mostly to finance public spending which even after the privatization of services was kept at high rates (though far less than before privatization), for example, in 1991 after one year of post-Pinochet democracy debt was still at 37.4% of the GDP. The Opposition, gathered into the Concertación de Partidos por el NO ("Coalition of Parties for NO"), organized a colorful and cheerful campaign under the slogan La alegría ya viene ("Joy is coming"). Salvador Allende of Chile on September 11, 1973. Between the years 1973 and 1990, his regime ruled with an iron fist, murdering thousands of ordinary people and torturing tens of thousands more. According to John Dinges, author of The Condor Years (The New Press 2003), documents released in 2015 revealed a CIA report dated 28 April 1978 that showed the agency by then had knowledge that Pinochet ordered the assassination of Orlando Letelier, a leading political opponent living in exile in the United States. , The following year he returned to his studies in the Academy, and after obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. At the end of 1959 he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the 1st Army Division, based in Antofagasta. , Pinochet's regime was responsible for various human rights abuses during its reign, including forced disappearances, murder, and torture of political opponents.  MacLean's account, however, has come under scrutiny.  President-elect Ricardo Lagos said the retired general's televised arrival had damaged the image of Chile, while thousands demonstrated against him. Shortly before giving up power, on September 15, 1989, Pinochet prohibited all forms of abortion, previously authorized in case of rape or risk to the life of the mother. Variations of the internet meme have seen increased popularity with the rise of far-right and alt-right politics. Subsequently, question is, what was the outcome of the military coup of 1973 in Chile? Ceme Centro De Estudios Miguel Enriquez", "Aquellos que todo lo dieron. , In September 1986, weapons from the same source were used in an unsuccessful assassination attempt against Pinochet by the FPMR. Two-thirds of the cases listed in the report happened in 1973..  CIA contact with DINA head Manuel Contreras was established in 1974 soon after the coup, during the Junta period prior to official transfer of Presidential powers to Pinochet; in 1975, the CIA reviewed a warning that keeping Contreras as an asset might threaten human rights in the region.  The CIA also maintained contacts in the Chilean DINA intelligence service. Augusto Pinochet was the leader of the military junta that overthrew Chile’s President Salvador Allende on September 11, 1973. Pinochet’s 1973 military coup overthrew Chile’s democratically-elected president, Salvador Allende, and installed a brutal and repressive mandate in his place. Less than a month later, the Chilean military deposed Allende. The DINA biochemist was also alleged to have created black cocaine, which Pinochet then sold in Europe and the United States. He was also the editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas ('One Hundred Eagles'). These were possible in Chile only after Pinochet was arrested in 1998 in the United Kingdom, on an extradition request issued by Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón. On 11 September 1973, the combined Chilean Armed Forces (the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Carabineros) overthrew Allende's government in a coup, during which the presidential palace, La Moneda, was shelled and most likely where Allende was said to have committed suicide. She was killed by a suicide bomber in 2007.  He was also accused of having corruptly amassed at least US$28 million. In 1988, several more parties, including the Humanist Party, the Ecologist Party, the Social Democrats, and several Socialist Party splinter groups added their support. In October 1979, The New York Times reported that Amnesty International had documented the disappearance of approximately 1,500 Chileans since 1973. In Santiago, opponents celebrated his death in Alameda Avenue, while supporters grieved outside the Military Hospital. Pinochet maintained power by dissolving parliament, banning all political parties and trade unions, and allegedly murdering thousands of Chileans who stood in opposition to his rule. November 1, 1930. , Pinochet portrayed himself as a common man with simple ideas. Pinochet was stripped of his parliamentary immunity in August 2000 by the Supreme Court, and indicted by judge Juan Guzmán Tapia.  But Pinochet's five children, his wife and 17 other persons (including two generals, one of his former lawyer and former secretary) were arrested in October 2007 on charges of embezzlement and use of false passports. Though the subcommittee was charged only with investigating compliance of financial institutions under the USA PATRIOT Act, and not the Pinochet regime, Senator Coleman noted: This is a sad, sordid tale of money laundering involving Pinochet accounts at multiple financial institutions using alias names, offshore accounts, and close associates. DINA led the multinational campaign known as Operation Condor, which amongst other activities carried out assassinations of prominent politicians in various Latin American countries, in Washington, D.C., and in Europe, and kidnapped, tortured and executed activists holding left-wing views, which culminated in the deaths of roughly 60,000 people. In 2004, Chilean Judge Juan Guzmán Tapia ruled that Pinochet was medically fit to stand trial and placed him under house arrest. The junta members originally planned that the presidency would be held for a year by the commanders-in-chief of each of the four military branches in turn. , According to Peter Kornbluh in The Pinochet File, "routine sadism was taken to extremes" in the prison camps. Short Biography. Where did Augusto Pinochet go to school? In 2001, a Santiago appeals court voted in favor of suspending proceedings against him on the grounds that he was mentally unfit to stand trial, and in 2002 the Chilean Supreme Court ruled that proceedings against him be suspended for good. He was also known for being reserved, sharing little about his opinions or feelings. Other victims of Condor included, among hundreds of less famous persons, Juan José Torres, the former President of Bolivia, assassinated in Buenos Aires on 2 June 1976; Carmelo Soria, a UN diplomat working for the CEPAL, assassinated in July 1976; Historian Alfredo Jocelyn-Holt has referred to Pinochet's figure as "totemic", and added that it serves as a scapegoat which attracts "all hate. During a 1986 protest against Pinochet, 21-year-old American photographer Rodrigo Rojas DeNegri and 18-year-old student Carmen Gloria Quintana were burnt alive, with only Carmen surviving. International lending organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Inter-American Development Bank lent vast sums anew.  Anna Cento Bull also excluded Pinochet from fascism, although she has argued that his regime belongs to a strand of Cold War anti-communism that was happy to accommodate neo-fascist elements within its activity.  Robert Paxton meanwhile compared Pinochet's regime to that of Mobutu Sese Seko in the former Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), arguing that both were merely client states that lacked popular acclaim and the ability to expand. ", Pinochet resigned from his senatorial seat shortly after the Supreme Court's July 2002 ruling. Arguing that the bodies of the "disappeared" were still missing, he made jurisprudence, which had as effect to lift any prescription on the crimes committed by the military. , Some political scientists have ascribed the relative bloodiness of the coup to the stability of the existing democratic system, which required extreme action to overturn. , Massive spontaneous street demonstrations broke out throughout the country upon the news of his death. Then, how did the Pinochet dictatorship end?  However, protests erupted in late 2019 in response to growing inequality in the country which can be traced back to the neoliberal policies of the Pinochet dictatorship.  In 2006, Pinochet was indicted for kidnappings and torture at the Villa Grimaldi detention center by judge Alejandro Madrid (Guzmán's successor), as well as for the 1995 assassination of the DINA biochemist Eugenio Berrios, himself involved in the Letelier case.  He officially changed his title to "President" on 17 December 1974. Many people believe Pinochet did some good things for his country. Due to the transitional provisions of the constitution, Pinochet remained as Commander-in-Chief of the Army until March 1998. Pinochet's bulletproof Mercedes Benz vehicle was struck by a rocket, but it failed to explode and Pinochet suffered only minor injuries.. They are accused of having illegally transferred $27m (£13.2m) to foreign bank accounts during Pinochet's rule. This period saw the expansion of business and widespread speculation. " Two days later, he was again sentenced to house arrest for the kidnapping and murder of two bodyguards of Salvador Allende who were arrested the day of the 1973 coup and executed by firing squad during the Caravan of Death.. Pinochet admired Napoleon as the greatest among French and had a framed picture of him.  Authors Tim Weiner (Legacy of Ashes) and Christopher Hitchens (The Trial of Henry Kissinger) similarly argue the case that US covert actions actively destabilized Allende's government and set the stage for the 1973 coup. We strive for accuracy and fairness. On 10 December 2006 at 13:30 local time (16:30 UTC) he was taken to the intensive care unit. , Pinochet returned to Chile on 3 March 2000. His years in power were marked by inflation, poverty, and the ruthless repression of opposition leaders. In 1968, he was named Chief of Staff of the 2nd Army Division, based in Santiago, and at the end of that year, he was promoted to brigadier general and Commander in Chief of the 6th Division, garrisoned in Iquique. During this ceremony, Francisco Cuadrado Prats—the grandson of Carlos Prats (a former Commander-in-Chief of the Army in the Allende government who was murdered by Pinochet's secret police)—spat on the coffin, and was quickly surrounded by supporters of Pinochet, who kicked and insulted him.  Author Peter Kornbluh argues in The Pinochet File that the US was extensively involved and actively "fomented" the 1973 coup. Some authors have speculated that Argentina might have won the war had the military felt able to employ the elite VIth and VIIIth Mountain Brigades, which remained sitting in the Andes guarding against possible Chilean incursions. GPO for the Library of Congress. There is no mention of the true brains, or that the whole of the armed forces were involved in this, in dirty and symbolic tasks. , During his lifetime, Pinochet amassed more than 55,000 books in his private library, worth an estimated 2,840,000 US dollars (2006–07). Historian Gabriel Salazar stated that high visibility of Pinochet and neglect of co-workers was reminiscent of fascist leadership: It is notable that in all the declarations of Pinochet's men, nobody has mentioned the creators of the new Chilean society and state, I haven't heard anybody mention Jaime Guzmán, Carlos Cáceres Contreras [es], Hernán Büchi, Sergio de Castro. United States Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs: "Levin-Coleman Staff Report Discloses Web of Secret Accounts Used by Pinochet", Press Release. Since the Riggs Bank scandal he has been referred to sarcastically as Daniel Lopez, one of the fake identities he used to deposit money in the bank. July 21, 1917.  Operation Condor was founded at the behest of the Pinochet regime in late November 1975, his 60th birthday. Augusto Pinochet Ugarte was born into a middle-class family Nov. 25, 1915, in the port city of Valparaiso. Salvador Allende became Chile's first socialist president in 1970 before committing suicide during a 1973 military coup. What followed was a widespread massacre of political opponents and a brutal fascist dictatorship in Chile that lasted from 1973 to 1990.  The library included many rare books including a first edition (1646) Historica relacion del Reyno de Chile and an original letter of Bernardo O'Higgins. General Augusto Pinochet, who ruled Chile as a dictator for 17 years, is dead. In a government decision, he was not granted a state funeral (an honor normally bestowed upon past presidents of Chile) but a military funeral as former commander-in-chief of the Army appointed by Allende. Devine stating "I sent CIA headquarters a special type of top-secret cable known as a CRITIC, which ... goes directly to the highest levels of government.". Protests continued, however, during the 1980s, leading to several scandals. These facts are important and widely recounted.  The regime used censorship of entertainment as a way to reward supporters of the regime and punish opponents.  Some of the key individuals who fled because of political persecution were followed in their exile by the DINA secret police, in the framework of Operation Condor, which linked South American military dictatorships together against political opponents. By mid-1975, after two years of Keynesianism, the government set forth an economic policy of free-market reforms that attempted to stop inflation and collapse. , The Rettig Report concluded 2,279 persons who disappeared during the military government were killed for political reasons or as a result of political violence. Jacobo Timerman has called the Chilean army under Pinochet "the last Prussian army in the world," suggesting a pre-Fascist origin to the model of Pinochet's military government. , Over several months in 2005, Chilean judge Sergio Muñoz indicted Augusto Pinochet's wife, Lucia Hiriart; four of his children – Marco Antonio, Jacqueline, Veronica and Lucia Pinochet; his personal secretary, Monica Ananias; and his former aide Oscar Aitken on tax evasion and falsification charges stemming from the Riggs Bank investigation. However, due to the "binomial" representation system included in the constitution, the elected senators did not achieve a complete majority in Parliament, a situation that would last for over 15 years.  At the beginning of 1972, he was appointed General Chief of Staff of the Army. The first country in the world to make that momentous break with the past—away from socialism and extreme state capitalism toward more market-oriented structures and policies—was not Deng Xiaoping’s China or Margaret Thatcher’s Britain in the late 1970s, Ronald Reagan’s United States in 1981, or any other country in Latin America or elsewhere. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of judge Juan Guzmán's request in August 2000, and Pinochet was indicted on 1 December 2000 for the kidnapping of 75 opponents in the Caravan of Death case. In arguing their case, the prosecution presented a recent TV interview Pinochet had given to journalist Maria Elvira Salazar for a Miami-based television network, which raised doubts about his alleged mental incapacity. Pinochet declared that he wanted "to make Chile not a nation of proletarians, but a nation of proprietors. " In 2001, Chilean President Ricardo Lagos informed the nation that during Pinochet's reign, 120 bodies had been tossed from helicopters into "the ocean, the lakes and the rivers of Chile".  The extradition attempt was dramatised in the 2006 BBC television docudrama Pinochet in Suburbia, with Pinochet played by Derek Jacobi. Large foreign banks reinstated the credit cycle, as debt obligations, such as resuming payment of principal and interest installments, were honored.  Although later discredited and officially recognized as the product of political propaganda, Gonzalo Vial Correa insists in the similarities between the alleged Plan Z and other existing paramilitary plans of the Popular Unity parties in support of its legitimacy. El coronel que le pena al ejército, CDE insiste en unir caso Huber con tráfico de armas a Croacia, Generales (R) y civiles de Famae procesados en caso armas a Croacia, Muere el ex dictador Chileno Augusto Pinochet, Augusto Pinochet falleció en el Hospital Militar tras sufrir recaída, "Viudos de Franco" homenajearon a Pinochet en España, Pedregoso camino para que cenizas de Pinochet llegaran a Los Boldos, Augusto Pinochet (1915–2006) – A Biography, Documentary Film on Chilean Concentration Camp from Pinochet's Regime: Chacabuco, CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet's Repression, Analysis of economic policy under Pinochet, When US-Backed Pinochet Forces Took Power in Chile, Committee of Cooperation for Peace in Chile, Attempted assassination of Bernardo Leighton, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Augusto_Pinochet&oldid=1008005188, People indicted for crimes against humanity, Recipients of the Order of the Liberator General San Martin, Heads of government who were later imprisoned, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from October 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Alistair Horne, "The case for Henry Kissinger" – The Independent (3587 words, 18 August 2009), Alide Dasnois, "Chile and the absurdity of ideological social engineering" – The Cape Times (1226 words, 8 July 2009), Michael Posner, "What it's like to arrive at a place called exile; Drawing on personal experience, Carmen Aguirre's play chronicles the plight of Chilean refugees fleeing the Pinochet regime" – The Globe & Mail (829 words, 17 September 2009), This page was last edited on 21 February 2021, at 02:01. 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